Black History Past & Present
A century and a half after Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, students in 2013 will continue an 87-year tradition of studying African American history during February.
Historian Carter G. Woodson, along with colleagues at the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH), established Negro History Week in 1926. With mobs still lynching African Americans every year (335 deaths reported in the 1920’s) and a surge of race riots sweeping the country, Woodson wanted to provide a counterpoint to the racial discrimination that dominated America. Initially observed in black schools, churches and social organizations, the event grew into Black History Month (also known as African American History Month) with President Gerald Ford’s signature in 1976.
Since 1928 the ASALH has provided a theme for each year. Looking over the thematic titles can provide students with a sense of the concerns of African Americans over the decades. For example, the link for the 2006 theme can help students understand how African Americans, shut out of local and national organizations, developed their own fraternal, civic and social institutions, some of which fought violence against blacks — including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) organized in 1909.
2013: Remembering 1863 & 1963
For 2013 the ASALH theme is “At the Crossroads of Freedom and Equality: The Emancipation Proclamation and the March on Washington.”
The Schomburg Center’s wealth of resources
The New York Public Library’s Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture covers much of the African American experience with online multimedia exhibits sure to catch the attention of middle graders. ‘IN MOTION: The African American Immigration Experience’ starts with the immigration of Africans to America as slaves and then studies thirteen migrations, culminating with the influx of sub-Saharan Africans in recent years. In addition to the extensive collection of images, texts, maps and timelines, this 2005 exhibit offers grade specific lesson plans, including many for grades 6-8.
At the Schomburg Center’s exhibit, ‘The Abolition of the Slave Trade,’ younger students may find the interactive timeline on the history of abolition of the slave trade — and the interactive map on numbers of slaves departing specific countries and arriving at other countries — most useful. Older students can research the essays, which offer general introductions that lead to more specific topics. The texts section provides extensive primary documents. Overall, this is a visually involving site that provides massive amounts of information in easy-to-access sections.
Another Schomburg exhibit, ‘Lest We Forget: The Triumph over Slavery,’ is also overflowing with interactive materials arranged chronologically. This exhibit uses a small font size in a pale color that makes using the resources less engaging than accessing other exhibits from the Center.
‘African Americans and American Politics,’ a Schomburg interactive exhibit from 2009, follows African Americans’ growing participation in American politics with sections for the 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. Students may need a quick demonstration on how to access the photos and documents, which are accompanied by brief explanations.
In the Center’s ‘Harlem 1900 – 1940′ exhibit, covering the rapid growth of the African American community in New York, students will find advocates, artists, business leaders and politicians. It’s a super source for the Harlem Renaissance. Teachers can click on Main Menu, upper right, to access images and PDFs that explain how to do oral history. The page also links to civic, advocacy and social groups of the early 20th century.
Finally, the Schomburg offers a 2011 exhibit, Africana Age: African & African Diasporan Transformations in the 20th Century. Its essays, images, brief videos and maps cover the African diaspora to the US and beyond. The essays will interest the upper age range of middle grades students.
Scholastic highlights the Underground Railroad
This year Scholastic helps students understand American slavery and the Underground Railroad with a multi-faceted, highly interactive resource. Through audio and images, slaves held at plantations and traveling north speak for themselves. Accompanying the selected slave narratives are primary resources, mostly photographs plus several documents. Students can also zero in on Harriet Tubman along with Underground Railroad volunteers and abolitionists. Activities include writing letters in code.
Scholastic debunks a long list of generally accepted myths about the Underground Railroad. The site also includes a detailed teacher’s guide. Nearby is Black History Month: Everything You Need.
The Library of Congress has assembled a page for teachers featuring images related to African Americans’ experiences and civil rights, arranged in periods from the 1700’s to 1996. Following the long list of image links are resources drawn from the LOC’s American Memory Collection. To access ready-made lesson plans rather than multitudinous resources, visit this LOC selection. Several lessons are suited for 6-8 graders.
The US Census: Focus on the 21st Century
For a look at African Americans in the 21st century, students can visit the US Census Bureau’s 2011 report on how people of African descent reported their race in the 2010 Census. Geographical locations are included. The report offers opportunities to study graphs and maps. A snapshot of African American culture can be found in the Census “Facts for Features” report prepared for Black History Month in 2012. The 2013 version of this “Facts to Features” report is scheduled for release January 24.
The Smithsonian: Civil rights and American art
The Smithsonian can help teachers bring art into the study of Black History with its online exhibit, ‘Oh Freedom! Teaching African American Civil Rights through American Art at the Smithsonian.’ Glean ideas for bringing the exhibit into your classroom by participating in the ‘Oh Freedom! Online Conference: Teaching Civil Rights through Smithsonian Collections.’ The free event, set for Wednesday, February 6, 2013 from 10:30 until 5 pm eastern, will feature museum curators and grade school educators as well as keynoter Richard J. Powell of Duke University. Registration is required. (The conference will be archived.) For an overview on using the site’s resources before the conference, visit the FAQ.
While exploring, don’t miss the interactive timeline covering civil rights in the 20th century which links to artists and artworks, including photographs, in the Smithsonian collection. At the More Resources link, the Smithsonian provides strategies for incorporating art into history and includes graphic organizers and worksheets. The site invites student comments and teacher lesson plans. Two of the lesson plans included in the exhibit target middle schoolers: ‘Citizens Making Choices: The Role of the U.S. Constitution in Peaceful Protest’ features the Memphis sanitation workers strike in 1968 and the 1992 LA riots. The other lesson introduces ‘The Many Faces of Civil Rights.’ The Resources page also links to extensive online resources for teachers as well as a detailed glossary. At present the resources for students are limited to books. Students do have their say in a series of podcasts.
Students can see the impact of history and current culture on contemporary African American artists at the website for ’30 Americans,” a 2010 show at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. The guide for educators includes selected artist bios, discussions of their art, and suggested discussion.
Black History Month: Reading & Writing
For English/Language Arts involvement in Black History Month, READ WRITE THINK offers a page which centers on the month-long National African American Read-In from the Black Caucus of NCTE. The NCTE provides a packet to report read-in participation. The RWT page also includes lesson plans and links to the Library of Congress’ African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship and PBS’ African American World.
To introduce poetry by African Americans, consider using Elizabeth Alexander’s engaging talk on the sources of black poetry and its interplay with hip-hop. Just a couple of words will need to be explained. Students can view Alexander’s 2009 Inauguration poem, “Praise Song for the Day,” here. (Warning: you may want to embed this YouTube video elsewhere – many comments at the link are highly inappropriate.)
For a chronological look into African American poetry, students could contrast Phillis Wheatley, the first black woman poet published in America, and Natasha Trethewey, the current US Poet Laureate. Trethewey links the Civil War to present day America in her poem, “Elegy for the Native Guard,’ remembering slaves and freedmen who enthusiastically served the Union. This link provides video of her reading the poem during a trip to Mississippi’s Ship Island where some of the Guard served. It features African American Native Guard re-enactors.
Sciencemakers: Leaders in STEM
The National Science Foundation-funded Historymakers’ collection, Sciencemakers, offers images and interviews of contemporary African American scientists and mathematicians. Teachers could adapt one aspect of the Sciencemakers page: encouraging students to create speeches or videos imagining themselves as future scientists or as scientists of the past or present. Historymakers also hosts collections of text interviews with hundreds of African American leaders in education, the military, the law, music, and other categories. Through a subscription service Historymakers sells videos of the interviews.
As part of its Black History Month resources, Science NetLinks offers ‘The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences.’ The brief biographies of the scientists, engineers and mathematicians are organized by profession and cover past and present. Other resources at the Science NetLinks page look into skin color. For students interested in space travel, NASA provides brief bios of current and past black astronauts. In 2011 Leland Melvin, a former astronaut who also worked as an engineer, chemist, musician, NFL player, and NASA educator, explained the history of African Americans in flight.
The Future of Black History Month
A recurrent discussion among educators and other Americans is whether racial and ethnic groups - African Americans, Latinos and Asians, for example – should be singled out for annual observations of their cultures. African Americans discuss whether Black History Month should continue to be observed in a five-minute PBS news segment.
For a longer treatment of the questions about celebrating Black History Month, visit Independent Lens’ page on African American filmmaker Shukree Hassan Tilghman’s documentary, ‘More than a Month.’ Aired on PBS in 2012, the film follows Tilghman as he begins by soliciting signatures to end Black History Month and then goes on to present differing points of view. The Independent Lens page provides several clips. Clip 3 returns to Carter G. Woodson, the creator of the annual observance, and goes on to discuss the impact of politics on how history is taught in American schools. The page includes an interview with Tilghman which can show students the challenges of making a documentary. The comments following the interview give a cross-section of attitudes toward Black History Month.
Update (January 31): Black History Month Has Been an Epic Failure – In a Huffington Post article, journalist Dion Rabouin faults teachers and proponents of Black History Month in the United States for failing to heed Malcolm X’s message: “Our history did not begin in chains.” Rabouin goes on to recount many great achievements by Black people in world history which he contends are given short shrift in American history lessons.
Update (January 31): Dos and Don’ts of Teaching Black History from the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance. From Larry Ferlazzo’s collection of Black History Month listings.
Update (February 1): Don’t miss EDSITEment’s Guide to Black History Month Teaching Resources. It provides educators with over 550 years of the African American experience arranged chronologically.
Update (February 5): The US House of Representatives has just launched a website about its history. Included is “Black Americans in Congress” which features profiles of the congressmen and women along with 7-12th grade lessons plans following these members’ participation in the House from 1870 forward. Civil Rights history is provided in oral histories and an outline of Amendments and legislation.
Update (February 14): Awesome Stories provides resources reaching from Africa before the trans-Atlantic slave trade to Ronald McNair, the African American astronaut who died in the crash of the shuttle Challenger in 1986.
Art and photo credits:
Carter G. Woodson: US Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations. Branch. News Bureau. (06/13/1942 – 09/15/1945)
1st Vote for African Americans: Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph). “The First Vote.” Nov. 16, 1867, from Harper’s Weekly. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
Underground Railroad: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-28860]
Evening Attire: James VanDerZee (1886–1983), Evening Attire, 1922, gelatin silver print, 10 x 8 in., Smithsonian American Art Museum
Leland Melvin: NASA/Carla Cioffi